The rehabilitation of the land and reestablishment of a flourishing ecosystem took up the majority of the last 20 years. Over 1600 km of fences were removed and various farmsteads cleared of undesired infrastructure, rubble and environmental waste. Furthermore, all windmills have been replaced with solar pumps, new waterholes were established or old ones relocated, farm roads reduced to single tracks and the whole area cleared of non-indigenous species. The early days of NamibRand Nature Reserve saw nearly no game, but as the habitat recovered, wildlife population numbers also recovered and seasonal wildlife migratory routes have been reestablished. From less than a 1000 springbok, the population has climbed to over 11 000 in less than two decades. The Reserve now operates at carrying capacity for most non-migratory species.